How many different types of trees are there in the world? What types of trees are most common in Turkey?
There are many different types of trees in the world. In particular, the variety of trees in our country is quite large. Since trees are grown in our country, there are quite a lot of trees in each region. Trees; It is classified by leaves, length and vegetation in which it grows. 22 species of trees grow in the forests of our country. Some of these species are found in other countries, while others grow only in our country. We told you how many different types of trees and what types of trees there are in Turkey. Here are the types of trees in the world and in Turkey.
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How many different types of trees are there in the world and in Turkey?
The number of tree species in the world is 60,065. The countries with the most tree species in the world are Brazil, Colombia and Indonesia. There are at least 5,000 tree species in these countries. 58% of the world’s trees grow in just one region, and there are 184 tree species in Turkey. According to the Forest Atlas of the General Directorate of Forestry, there are 14 common coniferous trees and 39 species of deciduous trees growing in Turkey. So, what types of trees are most common in Turkey?
Cedar, which occurs naturally in the Western, Central and Eastern Taurus, has a small and isolated distribution in the regions of Erbaa and Nixar in the north. The largest natural forests of Taurus cedar, one of the four types of cedar, are found in Turkey. There are 109,440 hectares of cedar forest in our country. The cedar, whose height can reach 40 meters, has the shape of a pyramid when young. However, the top of the tree deteriorates over time and becomes flat.
Although it naturally spreads in our northern regions, the beech tree also spreads in Amanoslar in the south. Forms extensive forests, pure or mixed with fir, spruce, pine and oak. Beech trees, which can be up to 40 meters long, have smooth and cylindrical bodies. The red coloration of its 6-9 cm long elliptical leaves with wavy edges is very showy in autumn. Its oily fruits are an important food source for wild animals in nature.
Scotch pine, which is one of the tree species in Turkey, forms pure or mixed forests in the highlands of Northern Anatolia, but reaches our interior and southern regions as small islands. The area covered by yellow pine forests in our country is 757,426 hectares. It got its name because of the reddish-yellow color of the bark of the trunk, which is divided into plates. It is a tree with a slender trunk, pointed crown and thin branches. Adults exceed 40 meters in length. Apart from the unique color of the bark, the short thin leaves and bluish green color are features that distinguish it from other types of pine at first glance.
It is distributed in the Sea of Marmara, the Western Black Sea region, the Central Taurus and Northern Anatolia. These are densely branched trees with a wide top, which are especially common in the forests of our northern and western regions. They can reach 20-30 meters in length. The leaves, which vary in size from 5 to 10 cm, are usually heart-shaped and curved, with serrated edges and long stems. The drooping inflorescences have a yellowish color and a characteristic smell. These late blooming flowers are dried and drunk like tea.
The sycamore, which is a type of tree in Turkey, grows naturally in streams and stream beds in forested areas. The species common in our country is the eastern plane tree. It can reach 30 meters in length and sometimes 10 meters in trunk circumference. Unlike other types of plane trees, the bark is shed in small particles and slowly. It has large leaves with elliptical lobes and flowers that form globular clusters.
Distributed in almost all regions of our country, depending on the species. There are species ranging from trees with a large crown, which can reach 25 meters in height and 2 meters in diameter, to shrubs 3-5 meters high. The leaves can vary in shape, they are lobed, serrated or with straight edges. In our country, there are 747.856 hectares of groves and 4984.149 hectares of coppice oak forests. Its cylindrical fruits, called acorns, are placed in a glass. There are 18 types of oaks, which are divided into three types: red oaks, white oaks and evergreen oaks according to the anatomical characteristics of their wood.
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The firs, which can reach 40 meters in height, are distinguished from other species of the Chamgiller family by their unique shape, needle-like stem bark leaves, and even smell. There are white stripes on the underside of the leaves. When the cones mature in autumn, their scales are shed. There are 213,652 hectares of pure spruce forests in our country.
The juniper, which has a wide variety of species from reptile shrubs to large trees, naturally occurs in the highlands of almost all of our regions. Some have cypress-like scaly leaves and some have stinging needle-like leaves. There are 1,100,492 hectares of pure juniper forests in our country.
As a typical Mediterranean tree, the cedar creates forests, especially in Western and Southern Anatolia. There are 46,490 hectares of pure pine forests in our country. The height of adults is 15-20 meters. It can be distinguished from other pines at a glance by its rounded top when young and umbrella-shaped top when old. Its seeds are quite large. Its seeds, popularly referred to as “pine nuts”, are an important source of income for villagers in the Western Anatolia region.
Spruce, belonging to the tree species of Turkey, is common in temperate and cold regions of the northern hemisphere. There are 40 different types of fir trees and their shapes. Although it looks like a spruce from a distance, it can be distinguished from it by its pyramidal top and drooping branches. In length it can reach 40-50 meters. Needle-shaped leaves are short, pointed, quadrangular in cross section. The scales of a mature cone do not diverge.
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